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A tribute to Ted Nelson,
a website on zz-structures for the scientific community


I am Antonina Dattolo, I am the founder and head of the SASWEB Lab, a research lab  dedicated to Semantic, Adaptive and Social Web and located  at the Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics of the University of Udine, Italy; since 2006, fascinated by zz-structures and by the revolutionary ideas of Ted Nelson, I started to work, collaborating with other researchers, on zz-structures, providing for them a formal description, expanding their view’s mechanisms, modelling and applying them on concrete case studies and specialized topics, such as:

  • e-learning, concept maps, grid systems, augmentative and alternative communication application for children  Autism Spectrum Disorders – with Flaminia Luccio, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Italy; we proposed also a formal description of these structures;
  • conceptual spaces, recommending systems, digital libraries, and folksonomies – with Felice Ferrara, Emanuela Pitassi, and Carlo Tasso, University of Udine, Italy;
  • cultural heritage, and tourist mobile guides – with Flaminia Luccio, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Italy, and Emanuela Pitassi, Alessio Onza, Andrea Urgolo, University of Udine, Italy;
  • electronic music – with Sergio Canazza, University of Padua, Italy;
  • sentiment analysis – with Paolo Casoto and Carlo Tasso, University of Udine, Italy;
  • graphical visualization for  bibliographies and  innovative teaching methodologies – with Marco Corbatto, University of Udine, Italy.  Currently we are dedicating a lot of energy to two projects: VisualBib and AppInventory.

During the last years, we collected  the existing bibliography on zz-structures; this website has the aim to share  with you and all the scientific community the works on zz-structures; you can help us to keep the site updated sending us a message to

This website maintains, at the best of our knowledge, the update list of papers on zz-structures (55 papers from 1998 to 2018 with their metadata, references and citation networks), ordered by date, author, type of document or category; furthermore, it proposes the visualization of the bibliography in the form of an narrative view. A single click on a paper highlights: in green color the cited papers, and in orange color the papers citing the selected one.
This alternative graphical representation has been programmed by Marco Corbatto, PhD student in Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics of the University of Udine, Italy.

The first version of this website has been realized by four students frequenting  my course on Web Technologies of the master’s degree in Integrated Communication for Business and Organizations, University of Udine: Martina Arbusti, Ester Marchesini, Marija Miljkovic, Katarina Odar; currently, it is maintained by Marco Corbatto.
The first revision of contents of this web site (data and metadata of the 55 papers) has been made by two students of my course on Foundations of Computer Science of the three-year degree in Public Relations, Univerity of Udine: Chiara Bottega and Sara Iavarone.

I would like to thank  all the people (researchers and students) who have worked with me on the zz-structures and on this project.

A special thank to you, Ted,
for your revolutionary ideas and our e-mails about the zz-structures!

Warning: Temporally, this website is not responsive on mobile devices: we made this choice to enable users to freely zoom-in and zoom-out on the narrative view related to the bibliography.